All examples provided in this guide are based on the official style guidelines outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Ed.
RU Authenticated users can access the Chicago Manual of Style in FULL TEXT ONLINE [limited to 25 simultaneous users]. Users can go directly to specific paragraphs in the manual. This LibGuide lists specific paragraphs for some items that were updated in the 16th editions such as DOIs, URLs, blogs and podcasts.
Much of this guide's content was written by Gene Hyde, with some additional material produced by members of the current Reference/Instruction team.
Special thanks to Gene Hyde for allowing the content of his Chicago/Turabian guide to be borrowed and adapted for this one.
Unlike APA and MLA styles, which use In-Text Citations (which are also called Author-Date or Parenthetical citations), Chicago style typically uses footnotes or endnotes, with a bibliography at the end of the text. Chicago style is frequently used in history, criminal justice, art history, library science, and other academic disciplines. Check with your professor to see which style is required for your class.
In footnote/endnote style, there are three ways that a source may be cited. Each is formatted differently:
1. A FULL endnote/footnote citation appears the FIRST time that a source is cited in a paper.
2. A SHORTENED endnote citation appears the SECOND and all subsequent times a source is cited.
3. A BIBLIOGRAPHY listing appears at the end of the text, containing complete bibliographic information about the source.
4. Additionally, when you cite the same source twice in a row, without another cited source appearing between them, you use “ibid” in place of the author’s name and title of the work. Examples of this appear throughout this guide.
(Chicago also has a method for In-Text, parenthetical citations, but this online manual will concentrate on footnote/endnote style. Most classes that require Chicago style at RU require using footnote or endnote style.)
For additional examples related to formatting papers, in-text citations, reference lists, and annotated bibliographies in Chicago Style, try these Web sites: